Latin america and the caribbean

This event was moderated by Manuel Orozcodirector of the Migration, Remittances and Development program. The job sectors that are currently being impacted during the Covid pandemic distinguish this crisis from past economic crises. Coen emphasized that with approximately 75 percent of the Latin American and Caribbean population living off of their day-to-day income, total isolation is not possible for many.

latin america and the caribbean

Jewers pointed out that foreign-born workers in the United States often have jobs that do not offer health benefits for employees — adding to the already pronounced problem that one in five migrants lack health insurance. In addition to limited healthcare access, Latino immigrants are known to live in higher populated households, making it harder to exercise self-isolation resulting in increased risk for exposure to the virus.

Coronavirus: a warning to Latin America and the Caribbean to dramatically increase COVID-19 testing

Those who are continuing to send remittances to friends or family will suffer a depletion of their resources, a loss of funds that will take time to recover from. He also projected that 90 percent of those who are unemployed will not send remittances for the next nine months. Coen mentioned that AirPak is estimating an impact on remittances of 15 to 25 percent. He also pointed out that countries that have been enforcing stricter social distancing measures, such as like Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Honduras, are currently experiencing short-term declines in their remittance transfers.

This contrasts with countries such as Mexico and Nicaragua that have taken lighter measures where remittance transactions have been increasing. The combination of individuals having to stay home and the temporary closures of remittance sending businesses has motivated people to transition to online remittance sending — sooner than some remittance senders had anticipated.

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Mobile wallets are not only more affordable at approximately a one percent sending fee but they are completely digital, providing parties the ability to send money across country borders to the recipient of their choosing, without anyone having to leave their home.

Mobile wallets also promote financial inclusion through their relationships with banks and their ability to transfer money directly into checking or savings accounts.

Nigro explained that the switch to mobile wallets linked to large banking institutions will contribute to greater financial inclusion worldwide.

Jewers was able to offer participants insight on actions that the community and the US government can take in order to lessen the hardships migrants and Latin American and Caribbean countries are facing. While there is some relief available to migrants through local health services and community organizations, it is imperative that individuals make themselves knowledgeable and available to nonprofits and health centers in their communities that are specifically working to provide medical help to undocumented populations.

Currently, it is being tied to social security numbers, which does not include undocumented workers that pay taxes to the United States. Economic and Health Impacts The job sectors that are currently being impacted during the Covid pandemic distinguish this crisis from past economic crises. Digital Vehicles for Sending Remittances The combination of individuals having to stay home and the temporary closures of remittance sending businesses has motivated people to transition to online remittance sending — sooner than some remittance senders had anticipated.

Path Forward Jewers was able to offer participants insight on actions that the community and the US government can take in order to lessen the hardships migrants and Latin American and Caribbean countries are facing.Health Topics.

Year of the Nurse and the Midwife About Us. Skip to main content. Menu Management for health services delivery General management Partnerships management Sub-national and district management Facility management Programme management Community health services Resource management Quality management Country experiences Links. Over the past decade, some Latin American countries have made consistent and substantial investments in research for health.

This has resulted in major improvements in the quality and focus of health research and the delivery of related services to their populations.

Boguea Claude H. Hall, Jr. La Forgiac,The World Bank Freeing hospitals from institutional and governmental control, referred to as facility-based management, seems to be associated with better hospital performance. The values underlying facility independence, however, must exist simultaneously with other socially or politically defined priorities and accountabilities. La ForgiaThe World Bank Recognizing the need to make their health systems more efficient, equitable, and cost effective, each country launched innovations to address specific problems or deficiencies in a particular program or function of the health system.

Measurement of the EPHF in 41 countries; analysis of the existing strengths and weaknesses in the public health sector; identification of additional examples of strategies and interventions for monitoring, evaluating and strengthening public health capacities by the countries at the national and sub-national levels.

Quick links Share Feedback Help. Share and exchange Share your resources. WHO Framework Strengthening management capacity. News Study courses. International meetings on management.

Latin America and the Caribbean

Reading PDF files. You are here: Management for health services delivery Country experiences Latin America and the Caribbean.Jump to navigation. Regional Overview. There are approximately According to the United Nations Population Division, this corresponds to approximately 27 per cent of international migrants worldwide.

Most Latin American States and the Caribbean have become net emigration countries; the migratory balance is negative by 6. Despite these strong flows from South to North, the movements from South to South have been increasing in recent years. Many of the countries in the region that were previously countries of only origin, transit or destination, nowadays share the three characteristics.

The Americas are characterized by four general migration trends outlined below. First, the economic crisis in developed countries continues to affect the migrant population in the countries of destination. Owing to the crisis, some migrants have started to return to their countries of origin. The returns are not massive, but they are steady. The constant flows of returnees in the affected countries have generated the need to establish effective mechanisms to assist the return of these migrants and their reintegration.

The economic crisis has also exacerbated anti-migrant sentiments in countries of destination. Second, the Latin American and Caribbean countries are important recipients of remittances.

Despite a decrease in the reception of remittances which took place inremittances continue to be a very important source of income for many Latin American and Caribbean countries. As a share of GDP, the highest ranked country was Honduras, with remittances equating to Remittances are private transfers of money made by the migrants and contribute to alleviating poverty and to satisfying the basic needs of the recipients; they do not, however, generate development.

As a consequence, the governments in Latin American and Caribbean are trying to develop public policies aimed at strengthening the link between migration and development.

Third, trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants remains a major concern in the region. Although trafficking for sexual exploitation is one of the more recurrent forms of trafficking, other forms such as trafficking for labour exploitation have been affecting the region.

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The issue of unaccompanied child migrants has also become an important challenge for the countries of the Americas, particularly in Central America. Fourth, despite the economic crisis and return flows, there are still large contingents of Latin American and Caribbean nationals living in the United States of America, Canada and Europe. Many of these communities are very well organized and have been contributing to the development of cultural, economic and social ties with their countries and communities of origin.

Consequently, improving relations with nationals abroad and particularly promoting linkages with skilled ones to facilitate their contribution to development are two other increasing priorities for governments. The issue of skilled diasporas needs to be further developed. Enter your keywords. Regional Overview There are approximately While the pandemic continues to spread across the region, countries are facing the worst economic recession since countries started producing national accounts statistics in the s.

The challenging external environment, coupled with much-needed measures to contain the pandemic, have led to a plummeting of economic activity across Latin America—where growth is poised to contract by 5. Given the dramatic contraction in and as countries implement polices to contain the pandemic and to support their economies—as emphasized in our previous blog —a sharp recovery in can be expected.

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By now, most of Latin America has taken significant public health measures to contain the spread of the virus. With atypical supply and demand shocks, a health crisis, and high financing costs across Latin America, the required actions to mitigate the human and economic costs of this crisis will be quite daunting and will require an unprecedented approach.

Although with different speed, by now most countries in the region have taken significant public health measures to contain the spread of the virus, such as social distancing and restrictions on nonessential activities. They have also increased the amount of fiscal resources allocated to healthcare, including tests, beds, respirators, and other equipment, which is an overarching priority given that many countries are still underprepared to face the worst of the pandemic.

On the economic policy front, actions have varied. Countries have relied on direct transfers to vulnerable households including an expansion of existing programsrelaxation of access requirements and expansion of unemployment insurance schemes, employment subsidies, temporary tax breaks and deferrals, and credit guarantees.

Sizeable packages have been announced by Brazil, Chile, and Peru, and others are expected to follow or enhance existing measures. Countries with better credit quality, as reflected in market spreads, have generally been more aggressive in their response to the pandemic.

Central banks in the region have reduced policy rates and taken measures to support liquidity and to counteract disorderly conditions in domestic financial markets. To ensure adequate liquidity conditions, some central banks have expanded the size of their liquidity provision operations, sometimes also allowing the participation of nonbank financial intermediaries and the use of highly-rated private sector securities.

Several central banks Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru have also intervened in foreign exchange and other financial markets to address disorderly conditions. Moreover, bank regulators have taken a number of measures to facilitate the continued provision of credit in an uncertain and recessionary environment.

Public banks in Brazil and Colombia have extended credit to small and medium-sized enterprises and firms in sectors particularly affected by the lockdowns, while Brazil, Chile, Peru and other countries have provided loan guarantees to help affected firms maintain and gain access to credit.

While we are in uncharted territory and policy responses are still evolving, policymakers are facing significant implementation challenges. For example, governments might be unable to reach vulnerable households through traditional transfers where there are no extensive social assistance systems already in place and where informality is prevalent.

Moreover, smaller firms and those in the informal sector are harder to reach. Given the high level of informality in the region, countries should use all possible registries and methods to reach smaller firms and informal workers and firms.

Additionally, given that the pandemic, the recession, and the required policy responses will cause significant increases in public deficits and debt, countries will need to create fiscal space in the budget by reducing nonpriority expenditure and increasing the efficiency of spending. Countries will need to ensure that policies taken in response to the crisis are not perceived as permanent and become entrenched and generate distortions—especially regarding targeted assistance to certain sectors.

latin america and the caribbean

To provide much needed additional revenue to help finance all these initiatives, increased taxation of petroleum products at a time when world prices are lower could be appropriate insofar that they do not increase domestic prices to end users. Moreover, the tension between what is needed and what is possible is also subject to change by policy action.

Those countries that can credibly commit to a sustainable fiscal policy by changing their tax, expenditure, and fiscal frameworks that guarantee corrections once the economy is back on track, will unlock significant fiscal space in the present to address the fall out.

There is scope for further cuts in policy rates and liquidity support. Large output gaps and lower-for-longer rates in advanced economies suggest some central banks in the region could cut rates further, but large capital outflows may pose constraints on further policy easing. Commercial banks may be wary to lend to risky sectors in a deep recession, so credit risk could be mitigated by direct lending or explicit guarantees provided by the government through development banks or special purpose vehicles set up to fulfill this objective.

Prudent and temporary use of regulatory flexibility, such as providing debtors some breathing space before classifying loans as past due and postponing associated costly provisionshas been applied in some countries to facilitate rollovers.

Several countries in the region will not be able to access sufficient resources on their own to cover the large external financing. So far, out of close to a countries that have requested emergency financing from the IMF, 16 are from Latin America and the Caribbean. Additionally, other Latin American and Caribbean countries have requested new programs or the augmentation of existing ones, such as Honduras.

As this is an unprecedent crisis, the IMF is actively engaged and fully committed to help our member countries fill this gap through several tools.

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These include using its 1-trillion-dollar balance sheetexpediting the approval of lending facilitiesincreasing the limits of existing facilities, and providing debt relief to the poorest and most vulnerable member countries hit by the pandemic under the revised Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust.

Besides the emergency facilities, the Fund is ready to deploy its more traditional arrangements such as Stand-by and Extended Fund Facilities as well as its contingent credit lines such as flexible credit lines and precautionary credit lines. As our Managing Director, Kristalina Georgieva, has noted, saving lives and protecting livelihoods ought to go hand in hand.We are among population scientists and health specialists from around the globe who have issued a stark warning to countries in Latin America and the Caribbean: governments must increase COVID testing in the region before it is too late.

Having observed the experience elsewhere in the world, the region can and should implement pertinent and assertive measures to contain and mitigate the pandemic. There is precious little time for this. Without rapid action, other countries may soon find themselves in the situation currently facing Ecuador, which has become a regional hotspot for the disease. Much of the international attention so far has been focused on the development of the coronavirus pandemic in middle and high-income regions.

latin america and the caribbean

Countries in these regions have generally tested for the disease extensively. Many in the global south have not. This is crucial because the number of conducted tests provides, at best, the lower estimate for the actual number of known cases, the so-called tip of the iceberg. The same people may be tested multiple times or the results of a test might be inconclusive. Simply put, there cannot be more reported cases than tests conducted. These countries are best informed to tackle the pandemic by isolating and providing care to contagious individuals, allocating resources to the worst-hit areas, and breaking chains of contagion by tracing back the steps of infected individuals.

Nevertheless, the number of tests conducted in the region is worryingly low. To put it in perspective, nine of the 20 countries conducting the fewest tests per million in the world are in Latin America and the Caribbean only considering countries sharing data.

This adds to a list of conditions that make the region particularly vulnerable to the pandemic. Many countries there have a poor healthcare system and a high prevalence of chronic conditions such as diabetes and hypertension that increase the risk of death from COVID A large informal economy and persistent income inequality make social lockdown measures difficult to enforce for extended periods of time.

There are also hints that domestic violence against women, a staple of the region, has increased during lockdown. Countries must implement massive testing campaigns to identify cases at the start of an outbreak. Nevertheless, governments in countries such as Guatemala, with only 56 working ventilators, have openly refused to conduct large-scale testing.

The Impact Of COVID-19 In Latin America And The Caribbean – Analysis

In neighbouring Mexico, the government has also been reluctant to implement rigorous measures and increase COVID testing. Underestimating the real number of cases can create a false sense of security, especially if governments use these numbers to claim success in containing the pandemic.

In the current circumstances, a consistently low number of cases may also reflect a lack of effective policies to monitor and contain the spread of the disease. The effective initial containment of virus transmission in Singapore and South Korea is largely attributed to the massive expansion of tests to detect infections, accompanied by drastic measures of social distancing.

Isolating infected people and breaking chains of contagion helped save many lives. Singapore and South Korea performed more than 7, tests per million inhabitants. In Latin American and Caribbean countries the average is around tests per million, according to our calculations of the available data. Countries such as Bolivia were conducting as little as 52 people tests per million in early April. A radical expansion in test coverage must underpin any strategy to contain and mitigate the COVID pandemic in the region.

This will allow governments to save lives by identifying and treating cases, interrupting contagion chains, and avoiding further outbreaks. The strategy, costly in the short term, will bring positive returns for society and the economy in the long term.

Without aggressive COVID case detection strategies, governments lack crucial intelligence to mitigate the social and economic impact of the pandemic. Ultimately, effective testing will reduce the need for strict containment measures in the future, which will be increasingly difficult for citizens to obey and for governments to enforce.

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This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article. The authors do not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and have disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

News Home. Follow us. The Conversation 8 April Despite the global financial crisis, the region averaged a three percent annual increase in economic growth between and Political advances have been notable, as well: free elections, vibrant civil society, and responsive governments are mostly the norm.

While these are impressive gains, the region still faces significant challenges. Latin America and the Caribbean continue to have some of the highest rates of income inequality in the world and economies have slowed.

Severe, chronic drought threatens lives and livelihoods. Regional progress in health masks inequalities between and within countries. Worsening citizen security, fueled by a violent transnational drug trade, is hindering growth and undermining democratic institutions in parts of the region.

Climate change poses risks, especially in Central America and the Caribbean. And some countries are restricting political rights. Economic and political stability in the Western Hemisphere are vital for the United States.

Latin America

Drug trafficking and violence that afflict our southern neighbors can penetrate our borders and impact U. Latin America and the Caribbean are also important and growing markets for American companies--a quarter of U. In LAC, USAID helps to make the United States and the Western Hemisphere more peaceful, secure, and prosperous by strengthening the capacity of governments and private entities to combat crime, improve governance, address climate change, and create an economic environment in which the private sector can flourish and create jobs.

Our programs in LAC help to generate economic prosperity, reduce crime and violence, support civil society, defend universal rights, and protect the environment. Government agencies, civil society, the private sector, development banks, and international organizations to help achieve enduring results.

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We are dedicated to crafting and executing programs that strengthen the LAC region as a whole while meeting the diverse long- and short-term needs of individual partners in the region. Skip to main content. Agency for International Development. Search Fusion Enter the terms you wish to search for. Latin America and the Caribbean. Find out more about our work in Latin America and the Caribbean by visiting our interactive map.

Share This Page. Act Learn how you can get involved and lend a hand. Partner Find business and funding opportunities. Comment Make a general inquiry or suggest an improvement. Connect Facebook. Stay Connected.The COVID pandemic is affecting businesses around the world, and producers and workers in Latin America and the Caribbean are no exception, although the outbreak of the virus reached the region later than other parts of the world.

We are closely monitoring the changing circumstances. All countries, except for Mexico, Brazil and Nicaragua have closed their borders. All governments are taking measures to reduce social movement, most of them have implemented mobility restrictions, quarantines and, in some cases, curfews.

However, in most countries, farmers are still producing food in the field, taking preventive measures such as social distancing, wearing face masks and gloves, washing their hands constantly, as recommended under sanitary protocols.

Some have reduced their operations to have fewer people on the processing or packing plants. Exports continue in almost all countries and products despite delays in operations in some countriesexcept for flowers in Ecuador, where rose plantations have reported an important decrease in their overall sales already.

Producers have expressed concerns regarding the availability of shipping containers in the coming weeks. There has been a high demand for coffee in the past two weeks, mainly from supermarkets given that most of the out of home markets have basically closed in most of the countries.

The coffee from Central America and Mexico has already been harvested. If movement restrictions continue for a long time, the SPOs could face problems getting enough workers on the farms for the harvest and some of the coffee production could be lost if it is not picked at the right time. In addition, the restrictions imposed by governments and other external factors are creating scarcity of shipping containers in Peru and Brazil, which could cause problems with shipments in the next months.

Although coffee prices have increased somewhat recently, they are very volatile and could experience decreases in the future. Most SPOs have asked their administrative staff to work remotely. They have fewer people working on farms and in processing centers and have taken preventive measures to limit the spread of COVID Prices have reduced by 25 percent, heavily affecting producers. Before the COVID pandemic, the price was around 3, dollars per metric ton; and nowadays, the price is around 2, dollars per metric ton.

The delay of cocoa grinding processes has impacted the price and the sales, which have also decreased. At the beginning of the year, the price increased as Africa was foreseeing a decrease in supply; however, nowadays the price is very low. The lack of financial liquidity is also a big problem for cocoa producers.

In most countries, the SPOs are harvesting the cocoa, but most are working with limited operations and are facing difficulties to distribute the product since shipments have become scarcer.

In most countries in Central America and the Caribbean, sugar producers have already processed 80 percent of sugarcane while the annual harvest will end by April. Around 90 percent of the sugar producers in the LAC region are harvesting or have completed the harvest aroundMetric Tons of sugar and 10 percent are doing maintenance mainly in South American countries where harvest starts in June and July. The exception is Belize, a country in which the harvest was delayed and now it is at 30 percent.

We foresee that government restrictions and quarantine will make it difficult for producers to harvest all sugarcane.



Comments

Moogushura

08.02.2021 at 10:12 pm

Ja, wirklich.